Internal strategies | Тренировка, развитие и улучшение памяти

Internal strategies

It extremely excellent receptions of mnemonic. They are called as internal as are created by mental system of the person. It is a question of the thought processes which are carried out on a constant basis for increase of ability to storing. They can function both at a stage of reception of the information, and at a stage of its restoration, and sometimes and at both stages simultaneously. Their application demands preliminary training: as well as at any skill of the person, in process of practical application they improve. More low resulted examples can seem very simple and not justifying mnemonic application, however they allow to facilitate understanding and training to technicians of storing. It is possible to estimate their utility at their application in a daily life, using for storing more information volume, than in the resulted cases, and on an example of significant data for you.

Mental associations

They are very simple and useful to storing of series of problems, such as not finished house affairs or purchases. It is a question of giving of sense of the information which does not possess it. At 1st stage it is necessary for person to generate a vision for each element from the list which needs to be remembered. At 2nd stage it connects this image with the object specified in the list, at first with 1st, then with 2nd, then with 3rd, 4th etc. This method appears suitable for storing of a series of details as helps to build all elements one after another. When the person creates mental associations by means of creation of images, they will be more effective than when it forms them without evident data.

Oral intermediaries

Frequently there is convenient use of oral intermediaries for maintenance of mental associations in an active condition. For this purpose the person can think up history or the story at which there will be images created by it.

For example, present, that in the list of purchases following subjects contain: oil, macaroni, milk, coffee, a coat hanger for the clothes, a humidifying cream, marks and envelopes. Probably, if to buy products, storing of writing-materials or a coat hanger for clothes as these things are got infrequently will be the most difficult moment, and in this case skill of their storing is not automated. To avoid it, create associations between subjects from the list by means of fancies.

In the beginning it is possible to create an image connected with macaroni and oil, imagining a dish from the macaroni seasoned with oil; give itself time accurately to see the received image. Then, present, that before you there is a coffee cup in which it is added a few milk. And at last can imagine, that hold in hands any subject of clothes, thus testing sensation as-as if have just stopped to put on hands humidifying cream. In summary create a fancy of that paste mark on an envelope. After creation of associations can generate from them the small story which will help to recollect all elements. For example, it can be such:

«I have just stopped to eat macaroni with oil and drank coffee with milk when has casually overturned a plate with the meal rests. After that I had to erase and dry a cloth, and then to put humidifying cream on hands. Such there was with me an oversight, I have described it in the letter which I send to you ».

Though it seems, that all subjects appearing in this example, simply to remember, we recommend to try to make this exercise, using longer list of subjects. After a while you are surprised, how much effective there will be this method. In the beginning it can seem difficult, but in process of its application it is found out, that it not only is simple, is fascinating enough. Creation of visual associations not only improves ability of memory to storing, but also allows to remember a greater quantity of the information.


The Method of places also named «a method loki» (metodo del loci) is the most ancient method of mnemonic which was known 500 years prior to Jesus Christ birth. It is obliged by the name to the story transferred to us in inheritance Cicero in which Symonides de Geocy, being on formal dinner party, have informed that it the messenger waits. When the poet left the house, the roof has fallen, as a result invited visitors have appeared buried under fragments, and their bodies were spoilt to unrecognizability. To identify bodies of visitors, Symonides de Geos has been compelled to recollect places on which visitors during a dinner sat. This tragical experience has exemplified to it that the person can improve abilities of the memory by means of creation of mental associations with a certain place. Subsequently the method has been used by the Greek and Roman orators at conducting long discussions not to use records.

If it is required to remember the list of data or sequence of theses for the report, the only thing that it is necessary to make - it mentally to make walk on «building», putting on storage if so it is possible to tell, substantive provisions or images in each room or a subsidiary premise. It is possible to restore the information after virtual walk on building premises in which data have been left. The essence of this system consists that the known sequence of places represents structure in which new data can be included.

We Will assume, that it is necessary to update the driving licence. For this purpose it is required to make following steps: to make the postal order, to receive the medical inquiry, to make a x-copy of the identification card, a photo and to transfer all mentioned documents together with an envelope on which the stamp is already pasted and, the address is written to corresponding establishment.

After will choose a building, for example the house, try to make a route, having visited the quantity of premises coinciding with number of steps which need to be undertaken. Choose, for example, a way from an entrance door to kitchen. Begin with an establishment of associations between different subjects. We will admit, the vestibule of the house transformed into post office will be the first image. Give itself time visually to present an image, make its as more as possible plausible. Then imagine group of doctors in a corridor. It is possible to present, that in a dining room on a TV place there is a photocopier, and in the same way build a number of associations to last step. When will be ready to recollect all sequence of the actions, already created associations with corresponding premises for them, it will be mentally necessary to repeat only the route that then to revive in memory the remembered information.


This method has been developed in XVIII century by Henry Herdsonom as improvement of a method of places which did not allow to restore the casual information. Henry Herdsona's method consists in application of a series of words which will be used in quality «hangers» for «hanging» new data. To take advantage of this method for storing of a new material, the person should create association between each new element and a word-hanger, according to the established sequence. Preliminary it is necessary to study the simple rhymed list, for example, the following:

uno-zumo (1 - juice), dos-tos (2 - cough), tres-pies (3 - feet), cuatro-teatro (4 - theatre), cinco-brinco (5 -- a jump) and so on, before series end.

Then associations between a new material and words-hangers therefore fancies in which concepts of a word-hanger and the new information will co-operate will be generated will be created. Images should be as more as possible detailed and live. For example, if it would be required to remember all Nobel prize winners in the field of the Spanish literature, H \ 'm image would be José Eche-garaj who drinks juice, 2nd image would belong coughing Jacinto Benavente, 3rd would be Gabrie - la the Mistral with the big feet, then would follow Juan Ramon Himenes reciting product on a scene of theatre, Miguel Angel Asturias, a making big jump, and further while speech would not come about Octavio the Pass.

To recollect the information, will enough see words-hangers to revive in memory demanded terms or associated ideas, needlessly to follow in advance established order, as at a method of places. So, if the person wishes to recollect the information following at number 5, he will recollect a word, in the given example associating with a word «leap», which will remind it about «Miguel Angel Asturias, making big leap."

Technicians of storing:

  1. Give sense of the information which before it had not
  2. Help to order the information, to create associations or to form mental images
  3. Vary from simple to difficult
  4. In process of application give more perfect results