Memory processes | Тренировка, развитие и улучшение памяти

Memory processes

Storing is an activity which occurs at realisation of following operations or processes: accumulation, codification and information restoration.

Accumulation. This reception of the information collected by our sense organs.

Codification. It is process in which course touch stimulus of the information will be transformed to the significant information assimilated by systems of memory. By means of codification data decrease and transformed, on the important material the corresponding index, thus the excessive information is put reduced.

Restoration. It is operation which will allow to get subsequently access to data by search of keys which have been created by us for information restoration.

Codification and restoration

Are defined both general IQ, and the got skills and mental faculties.

Memory and intelligence

When person name clever, he considers, that at it good abilities to deduction, reflexions, logic use. Thus absolutely it is spoken nothing about memory. Sometimes it is shown as ability which develops irrespective of intelligence. And no more that. Usually the person well remembers only that has well understood.

Capacity of memory can be estimated only by comparison to IQ which the person possesses. Hence, it is necessary to expect, that low IQs cause presence of the limited memory, and high levels enrich memory a considerable quantity of resources. Whether

Accuracy of memory

However is memory the mechanism which without failures accumulates the information collected by sense organs? Not always. Psychologists have spent a number of experiments in which course ability of memory authentically was put on trial to reproduce the information.

During one of them, spent to 1995, Rodidzher and McDermott have created the sample for research under the name «a word - Theme» or «a word - a ghost» (ghost word). A series of words, for example has been read group of people: the bed, the rest which has got tired, a dream to wake up, night, convenience, a sound, a sleeplessness to snore etc. the Majority of examinees, recollecting the list of words, added a word «sleep. Simply it seemed to them, that this word should be in the list, therefore they included it in the list.

During other American experiment which already is considered classical, John Bransford from university Vanderbilt (Nashville) showed a slide, on which the underground car has been represented, in which travelled the person with black colour of a skin and the white person with Navajo (the Spanish penknife) in a hand. The test was spent as follows: the image was shown only to one person who then on memory described to its other person who told the remembered information to a following member of group and so up to the end. Researchers could confirm, that in memory of participants of experiment there were interesting changes of the information. Navaja changed the owner, there was a possible victim.

The Result became obvious after check of the version of the description of the image, the group stated by last member: in it it was spoken about the car nyo-jorskogo the underground which went to street Portland. In it there was a Jewish woman and the black boy which in a hand held Navajo.

Though even if usually the information is embodied in memory by authentic image, in some cases it is exposed to distortions.

The Moment in which it will be transformed or reconstructed, is the beginning of realisation of codification which allows to store and subsequently to restore data with greater economy and accuracy. As codification is active process, all system of cerebration participates in its realisation, that besides abilities and strategy at codification aspirations are considered also is logical, system of values and requirement of each individual. Nevertheless sometimes these personal factors not only deform the information, but irekonstruiruyut it in such a manner that it gets other sense.