Neuropsychological rehabilitation | Тренировка, развитие и улучшение памяти


Neuropsychological rehabilitation

Is a question of application of a series of receptions at which not amazed zones of a brain compensate or incur functions of the amazed zones of a brain. The application of these receptions based on use of additional reserves of an organism and extreme functional and synaptic of plasticity of a brain, will allow to reorganise its functions.

Exercises on storing

At memory restoration frequently compare its activity to muscle activity, assuming, that repetition of exercises improves its functioning. Such approach was used among patients with deterioration of ability to storing, they were exposed to intensive employment with application of exercises on storing. However medical inspections of patients have not confirmed efficiency of this method, at least for patients with brain damages. That exercises on storing really were useful, they should be based on a method of use of informative strategy. Training to this method has much in common with technicians of storing ( «Technicians of storing and them benefits», with. 72). However there is one considerable distinction: the mnemonic applied to patients with damage of a brain, demands some special conditions for training which should occur under supervision of the expert - the neuropsychologist. Nejropsihologichesky rehabilitation should lean against remained functions to compensate deficiency in other areas, hence, it appears extremely important full neuropsychological inspection of the patient prior to the beginning of rehabilitation.

Training without errors

Other vital issue consists that application of strategy of storing should be carried out according to the principle which has received the name «training without error". Namely, it is necessary to avoid at any cost that the patient during exercises did errors. Therefore it is not necessary to force to guess the patient the answer which he does not know, or to ask, that it gave some answers or that he could choose from them a correct variant. The person with deficiency of informative abilities can be confused by the doubts, he can sometimes insist on the erroneous answer and be unable correct it.

Thus there is useful that the patient will learn to use the visual or imagined information which allows to create associations, it can simplify data, create keys for restoration and reduce the tendency to attention dispersion.

Such methods as «expanded memory» and «dispersion traces» have recommended high degree of the efficiency in rehabilitation of the most upset functions of memory.

The Method «expanded memories»

The Purpose of application of this method is based on gradual increase in volume of the remembered information after each attempt of restoration of data. That is, a certain quantity of data is remembered, then time till the moment of their restoration gradually increases. Also the volume of the information intended for deduction in memory little by little increases. This practice is directed on avoiding errors and consequently should correspond to possibilities of the patient which come to light after neuropsychological the inspection made prior to the beginning of application of a method.

The Method of dispersion of traces

Means assimilation of a quantity of the information with gradual use of decreasing quantity of keys, that each time facilitates restoration more information volume.

The patient can do This kind of exercises at home, by means of one of members of the family. The method is usually used for repeated mastering of the inaccessible information, for improvement of mastering of new data, restoration of handwriting after dysgraphia, ability frustration to write, or such motor skills, as use of tablewares or, for example, phone.

However, depending on weight of deficiency, before the beginning of this method of rehabilitation usually it is recommended to spend corresponding neuropsychological rehabilitation.

Branches neuropsychological

In the majority of them possibility to visit specialised groups for patients though almost always individual employment on rehabilitation in the beginning are required is offered to rehabilitation, especially, if deficiency is strongly pronounced. Work in group allows patients to realise better own problems and to prove to itself, that they, like other patients with the same frustration, can achieve restoration of the lost functions. Moreover, as a substantiation for performance of tasks that in breaks between employment neuropsychologist will suggest to do house exercises serves.

The General personalised purposes

In groups on memory rehabilitation are pursued the aims not only the general character, but also individual. So the patient suffering from language problems or difficulties with concentration of attention, will do special exercises, besides the general exercises for all members of group. The general exercises will be intended for improvement of time orientation of members of group as many of them are incapable to define date. Usually the general are the first exercises of employment. Application of strategy of mnemonic is then fulfilled. Therefore, depending on deficiency severity level, attempt of work with the information having certain importance for the patient will be undertaken. Besides computer tasks or work in a writing-book attempt of use of exercises on active participation of the patient is undertaken, extremely important information is thus applied to it, connected with its nearest environment. Thus, the changes occurring near to it, in his family, quarter, a city that the patient did not feel that is in the unfamiliar world are fulfilled. Besides it, the important news from mass media and the aspects connected with interests of the patient are used. By means of this type of information the patient is trained in application of informative strategy according to principles already stated above «expanded remembering» and «dispersion trace», applied in a context of training without errors.

On the other hand, the patient will be trained application of external strategy, for example use of daily logs or signals, and even to drawing up of the program of activity per day, that will allow it to feel more independent.

And at last, supervision over emotional factors is conducted at realisation of this kind of rehabilitation. In many cases presence of frustration of memory does the patient incapable of labour activity, social and family relations. In similar situations there can be necessary use of receptions of clinical psychology, such as a relaxation or informative transformation. Usually there is a change of duties, belief and capable to excite emotions after psychological therapy in which basis principles of change of behaviour are put.

At neuropsychological rehabilitations it is necessary to define a kind of technics, a relaxation. Technics Yakobson (the technician of a progressive muscular relaxation) basically is recommended, however its application will be expedient not in all cases, its appointment is caused by degree of deficiency of memory.

Duration of rehabilitation treatment

Though duration of treatment depends on a condition of each patient and degree of deficiency of its memory, approximate duration of a course will fluctuate in limits of 3 months, on 2 sessions every week. If deficiency of memory very strong, group employment can be anticipated individual rehabilitation by duration from 1 till 2 months. Practically all scientific researches have shown, that after similar treatment in a condition of memory of patients there are considerable changes. At suffering from a global amnesia improvement of ability of memory to storing occurs hardly provided that he benefits by application of exercises on the time orientation, reducing freak of the imagination and increasing comprehension of deficiency of memory.

For preservation of positive changes continuation of neuropsychological treatments through certain time intervals, first of all within first 2th years after occurrence of problems with memory is recommended. Visiting of new sessions of therapy which will serve fastening of improvements is possible and will prevent disease relapses.